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Development of Low Glycemic Index (GI) Foods by Incorporating Pulse Ingredients into Cereal‐Based Products: Use of In Vitro Screening and In Vivo Methodologies

Natsuki Fujiwara, Clifford Hall, Alexandra L. Jenkins
Cereal chemistry 2017 v.94 no.1 pp. 110-116
cookies, crackers, glycemic index, in vitro studies, ingredients, lentils, muffins, palatability, pasta, pea protein, peas, screening, snacks, test meals, wheat flour, white bread
Pulse ingredients (pea and lentil flour, pea protein, and pea fiber) were incorporated into 94 different food products. Products included pastas, breads, crackers, extruded snacks, cookies, cereal bars, and muffins. Products were screened for estimated glycemic index using an in vitro method. Based on the screening results, five products (pasta, bread, cracker, granola bar, and cookie) were selected for in vivo glycemic index (GI) testing. For each control (containing 100% wheat flour), a pulse variant (containing up to 50% pulse ingredients) was developed. Ten healthy subjects consumed each test meal in addition to three control white bread meals on separate days during the in vivo GI testing. GI values of the control and pulse variant meals were 61.3 ± 5.1 versus 54.6 ± 7.6 (pasta), 61.4 ± 5.6 versus 53.4 ± 4.7 (focaccia bread), 46.0 ± 4.2 versus 41.5 ± 3.1 (cracker), 35.4 ± 3.6 versus 34.8 ± 5.0 (granola bar), and 41.6 ± 3.8 versus 37.6 ± 3.0 (cookie). The difference did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). Mean GI difference between control and pulse variant was 4.8 ± 2.6, with all pulse variants falling into the low GI category. Palatability scores showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between the control and pulse variant. The data support substituting wheat flour with pulse ingredients to reduce the GI value without changing palatability of the products.