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Dual-Functional Carbon Dots Pattern on Paper Chips for Fe3+ and Ferritin Analysis in Whole Blood

Hu, Shan-Wen, Qiao, Shu, Xu, Bi-Yi, Peng, Xiang, Xu, Jing-Juan, Chen, Hong-Yuan
Analytical chemistry 2017 v.89 no.3 pp. 2131-2137
blood cells, blood coagulation, blood serum, carbon, colorimetry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ferritin, fluorescence, hematologic tests, iron, nanogold, paper
Though microfluidic paper analytical devices (μPADs) have attracted paramounting attentions in recent years as promising devices for low cost point-of-care tests, their real applications for blood analysis are still challenged by integrating sample preparation with different detection modes on a same μPAD. Herein, we developed a novel μPAD, which well coupled automatic serum extraction with reliable dual mode iron health tests: fluorescent analysis for Fe³⁺ and colorimetric ELISA for ferritin. All these functions are made available by in situ carbon dots (CDs) and AuNPs sequential patterning techniques. For CDs immobilization, hydrothermal reaction was taken on paper, to which a patterned through-hole polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mask was applied. None fluorescence CDs (nF-CDs) were generated on exposed regions, while the fluorescent CDs (F-CDs) were generated simultaneously on covered regions. Sensitive serum iron quantification was realized on the F-CDs modified regions, where Fe³⁺ ion can selectively quench the fluorescence of F-CDs. For AuNPs immobilization, electroless plating was taken on nF-CDs modified regions. The resulting AuNPs on nF-CDs layer on one hand triggered the coagulation of blood cells and thus led to the longest ever wicking distance for serum separation, on the other hand facilitated colorimetric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum ferritin. Combining the two readings, the μPAD can provide reliable measurement for serum iron and serum ferritin in whole blood. Furthermore, as CDs and AuNPs modified μPAD has the features of easy handling, low-cost, lightweight, and disposability, it is accounting for a promising prototype for whole blood point-of-care analysis.