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KMnO4–Fe(II) pretreatment to enhance Microcystis aeruginosa removal by aluminum coagulation: Does it work after long distance transportation?
- Qi, Jing, Lan, Huachun, Miao, Shiyu, Xu, Qiang, Liu, Ruiping, Liu, Huijuan, Qu, Jiuhui
- Water research 2016 v.88 pp. 127-134
- Microcystis aeruginosa, algae, aluminum, coagulation, drinking water, flow cytometry, iron, manganese, organic matter, potassium permanganate, water treatment
- KMnO4–Fe(II) pretreatment was proposed to enhance Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) removal by aluminum (Al) coagulation in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in our previous study. This study aims to optimize this process and evaluate the feasibility of using the process at water sources, which are usually far away from DWTPs. The optimum molar ratio of KMnO4 to Fe(II) [RKMnO4:Fe(II)] is observed to be 1:3 with respect to algae removal and residual manganese (Mn) control. As indicated from flow cytometer analysis, KMnO4 at <20 μM promisingly maintains cell integrity, with damaged cell ratios of below 10%. KMnO4 at 30 and 60 μM damages M. aeruginosa cells more significantly and the damaged cell ratios increase to 21% and 34% after 480 min. The intracellular organic matter (IOM) release can be controlled by the subsequent introduction of Fe(II) to quench residual KMnO4. KMnO4–Fe(II) pretreatment at the KMnO4 dose of 10 μM dramatically enhances the algae removal by over 70% compared to that by Al coagulation, even if KMnO4 and Fe(II) are introduced 480 min prior to the addition of Al2(SO4)3. The Al doses can be reduced by more than half to achieve the same algae removal. Furthermore, the deposition of the tiny Fe–Mn precipitates formed rarely occurs, as indicated by a settleability evaluation prior to Al addition. The KMnO4–Fe(II) process can be sequentially dosed at intake points in water sources to achieve moderate inactivation of algae cells and to enhance algae removal in DWTPs thereafter.