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Atmospheric wet deposition of dissolved trace elements to Jiaozhou Bay, North China: Fluxes, sources and potential effects on aquatic environments

Xing, Jianwei, Song, Jinming, Yuan, Huamao, Wang, Qidong, Li, Xuegang, Li, Ning, Duan, Liqin, Qu, Baoxiao
Chemosphere 2017 v.174 pp. 428-436
aluminum, anthropogenic activities, aquatic organisms, biogeochemical cycles, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, dust, emissions factor, iron, lead, manganese, marine environment, pollutants, principal component analysis, rain, rivers, seasonal variation, seawater, selenium, soil, toxicity, wet deposition, wind speed, zinc, China
To analyze the fluxes, seasonal variations, sources and potential ecological effects of dissolved trace elements (TEs) in atmospheric wet deposition (AWD), one-year wet precipitation samples were collected and determined for nine TEs in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) between June 2015 and May 2016. Both the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration and flux sequence for the measured TEs was Al > Mn > Zn > Fe > Pb > Se > Cr > Cd > Co. Al was the most abundant TE with a VWM concentration and wet flux of 33.8 μg L−1 and 29.2 mg m−2 yr−1, which were 2 and 3 orders of magnitude higher than those of Co, respectively. The emission intensities of pollutants, rainfall amount and wind speed were the dominating factors influencing seasonal variations of TEs in AWD. Based on enrichment factors, correlation analysis and principal component analysis, most of the TEs in AWD were primarily originated from anthropogenic activities except for Al and Fe, which are typically derived from re-suspended soil dusts. Although the TE inputs by AWD were significantly lower than those by rivers, the TE inputs via short-term heavy rains would distinctly increase surface seawater TE concentrations and then pollute the marine environment of JZB. AWD would have both profound impacts on the biogeochemical cycles of TEs and dual ecological effects (nutrient and toxicity) on aquatic organisms.