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Integrating hierarchical bioavailability and population distribution into potential eco-risk assessment of heavy metals in road dust: A case study in Xiandao District, Changsha city, China

Huang, Jinhui, Li, Fei, Zeng, Guangming, Liu, Wenchu, Huang, Xiaolong, Xiao, Zhihua, Wu, Haipeng, Gu, Yanling, Li, Xue, He, Xiaoxiao, He, Yan
The Science of the total environment 2016 v.541 pp. 969-976
bioavailability, cadmium, case studies, chromium, copper, dust, heavy metals, land use, lead, pollutants, population density, population distribution, risk, risk management, soil, zinc, China
Modified eco-risk assessment method (MEAM) integrated with the hierarchical bioavailability determined by the fraction detection of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr in road dust samples and the local population distribution derived from the local land use map, was proposed to make the hierarchical eco-risk management strategy in Xiandao District (XDD), China. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo), the original potential eco-risk index (Eri) and the modified eco-risk assessment index (MEAI) were used to identify the priority pollutant. Compared with the Hunan soil background values, evaluated metal concentrations were found to different extent. The results of mean Igeo, Eri and bioavailability of studied metals revealed the following orders: Cd>Pb≈Zn>Cu≈Cr, Cd>Pb>Cu>Cr>Zn and Cd>Zn>Cu≈Pb>Cr, respectively. Therefore, Cd was regarded as the priority pollutant. To identify the priority areas taking into account cost consideration, the hierarchical risk map based on the results of the modified eco-risk assessment index with overlay of the population density map was needed and made. The west and partly south areas of XDD were under higher eco-risk generally. Moreover, the whole XDD area was divided into 4 area categories with different management priorities based on the possibility of occurrence of eco-risk, and the hierarchical risk management strategy associated with protecting local population was suggested to facilitate allocation of funds for risk management.