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Use of physicochemical signatures to assess the sources of metals in urban road dust

Mummullage, Sandya, Egodawatta, Prasanna, Ayoko, Godwin A., Goonetilleke, Ashantha
The Science of the total environment 2016 v.541 pp. 1303-1309
anthropogenic activities, antimony, barium, bitumen, cadmium, calcium, cluster analysis, control methods, copper, dust, factor analysis, molybdenum, nickel, pollutants, potassium, principal component analysis, sodium, soil, tin, tires, zinc
Road deposited dust is a complex mixture of pollutants derived from a wide range of sources. Accurate identification of these sources is seminal for effective source-oriented control measures. A range of techniques such as enrichment factor analysis (EF), principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) are available for identifying sources of complex mixtures. However, they have multiple deficiencies when applied individually. This study presents an approach for the effective utilisation of EF, PCA and HCA for source identification, so that their specific deficiencies on an individual basis are eliminated. EF analysis confirmed the non-soil origin of metals such as Na, Cu, Cd, Zn, Sn, K, Ca, Sb, Ba, Ti, Ni and Mo providing guidance in the identification of anthropogenic sources. PCA and HCA identified four sources, with soil and asphalt wear in combination being the most prominent sources. Other sources were tyre wear, brake wear and sea salt.