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Enteric and indicator virus removal by surface flow wetlands

Rachmadi, Andri T., Kitajima, Masaaki, Pepper, Ian L., Gerba, Charles P.
The Science of the total environment 2016 v.542 pp. 976-982
overland flow, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, vertebrate viruses, wetlands, detection limit, bioactive properties, humans, genome, Polyomaviridae, Kobuvirus, viruses, water temperature, Norovirus, wastewater, Pepper mild mottle virus, autoclaving, Arizona
We investigated the occurrence and attenuation of several human enteric viruses (i.e., norovirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus 1, polyomaviruses, and enterovirus) as well as a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), at two surface flow wetlands in Arizona. The retention time in one of the wetlands was seven days, whereas in the other wetland it could not be defined. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet from the wetlands over nine months, and concentration of viral genomes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the human enteric viruses tested, adenovirus and Aichi virus 1 were found in the greatest prevalence in treated wastewater (i.e., inlet of the wetlands). Reduction efficiencies of enteric viruses by the wetlands ranged from 1 to 3log10. Polyomaviruses were generally removed to below detection limit, indicating at least 2 to 4log10 removal. PMMoV was detected in a greater concentration in the inlet of both wetlands for all the viruses tested (104 to 107genomecopies/L), but exhibited little or no removal (1log10 or less). To determine the factors associated with virus genome attenuation (as determined by qPCR), the persistence of PMMoV and poliovirus type 1 (an enterovirus) was studied in autoclaved and natural wetland water, and deionized water incubated under three different temperatures for 21days. A combination of elevated water temperature and biological activities reduced poliovirus by 1 to 4log10, while PMMoV was not significantly reduced during this time period. Overall, PMMoV showed much greater persistence than human viruses in the wetland treatment.