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Adaption of an in vitro digestion method to screen carotenoid liberation and in vitro accessibility from differently processed spinach preparations

Eriksen, Jane N., Luu, Amy Y., Dragsted, Lars O., Arrigoni, Eva
Food chemistry 2017 v.224 pp. 407-413
beta-carotene, bioavailability, butter, cooking quality, in vitro digestion, leaves, lutein, olives, peanut oil, spinach, steaming
Dark green leafy vegetables are primary food sources for lutein and β-carotene, however these bioactives have low bioavailability. The effects of mechanical and thermal processing as well as fat addition and fat type on lutein and β-carotene liberation and in vitro accessibility from spinach were investigated. Lutein liberation and in vitro accessibility were three-fold higher from spinach puree compared to whole leaves. Results for β-carotene liberation were similar, whereas that of β-carotene accessibility was only about two-fold. Steaming had no or a negative effect on carotenoid liberation. Fat addition increased β-carotene liberation from raw and steamed puree, but reduced lutein liberation from steamed leaves and raw puree. Fat types affected β-carotene differently. Butter addition led to a 2.5 fold increased liberation from raw spinach puree, while the effect of olive and peanut oil was significantly lower, but only minor effects were observed for lutein.