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RNA-based control mechanisms of Clostridium difficile

Soutourina, Olga
Current opinion in microbiology 2017 v.36 pp. 7-68
Clostridium difficile, RNA, adhesion, bacteriophages, biofilm, cross infection, diarrhea, enteropathogens, gene expression, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, pathogenicity, sporulation, stress response
Clostridium difficile (CD)-associated diarrhoea is currently the most prevalent nosocomial diarrhoea worldwide. Many characteristics of CD pathogenicity remain poorly understood. Recent data strongly indicate the importance of an RNA network for the control of gene expression in CD. More than 200 regulatory RNAs have been identified by deep sequencing and targeted approaches, including Hfq-dependent trans riboregulators, cis-antisense RNAs, CRISPR RNAs, and c-di-GMP-responsive riboswitches. These regulatory RNAs are involved in the control of major processes in the CD infection cycle, for example motility, biofilm formation, adhesion, sporulation, stress response, and defence against bacteriophages. We will discuss recent advances in elucidation of the original features of RNA-based mechanisms in this important enteropathogen. This knowledge may pave the way for further discoveries in this emergent field.