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Effects of caffeine on behavioral and inflammatory changes elicited by copper in zebrafish larvae: Role of adenosine receptors Toxicology & pharmacology
- Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes, Leite, Carlos Eduardo, Kist, Luiza Wilges, de Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros, Bogo, Maurício Reis, Bonan, Carla Denise, Campos, Maria Martha, Morrone, Fernanda Bueno
- Comparative biochemistry and physiology 2017 v.194 pp. 28-36
- Danio rerio, animals, behavior change, caffeine, copper, copper sulfate, gene expression, inflammation, interleukin-10, interleukin-6, larvae, purinergic receptors, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, survival rate, tumor necrosis factors
- This study investigated the effects of caffeine in the behavioral and inflammatory alterations caused by copper in zebrafish larvae, attempting to correlate these changes with the modulation of adenosine receptors. To perform a survival curve, 7dpf larvae were exposed to 10μM CuSO4, combined to different concentrations of caffeine (100μM, 500μM and 1mM) for up to 24h. The treatment with copper showed lower survival rates only when combined with 500μM and 1mM of caffeine. We selected 4 and 24h as treatment time-points. The behavior evaluation was done by analyzing the traveled distance, the number of entries in the center, and the length of permanence in the center and the periphery of the well. The exposure to 10μM CuSO4 plus 500μM caffeine at 4 and 24h changed the behavioral parameters. To study the inflammatory effects of caffeine, we assessed the PGE2 levels by using UHPLC-MS/MS, and TNF, COX-2, IL-6 and IL-10 gene expression by RT-qPCR. The expression of adenosine receptors was also evaluated with RT-qPCR. When combined to copper, caffeine altered inflammatory markers depending on the time of exposure. Adenosine receptors expression was significantly increased, especially after 4h exposure to copper and caffeine together or separately. Our results demonstrated that caffeine enhances the inflammation induced by copper by decreasing animal survival, altering inflammatory markers and promoting behavioral changes in zebrafish larvae. We also conclude that alterations in adenosine receptors are related to those effects.