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Cellular internalization, transcellular transport, and cellular effects of silver nanoparticles in polarized Caco-2 cells following apical or basolateral exposure
- Imai, Shunji, Morishita, Yuki, Hata, Tomoyuki, Kondoh, Masuo, Yagi, Kiyohito, Gao, Jian-Qing, Nagano, Kazuya, Higashisaka, Kazuma, Yoshioka, Yasuo, Tsutsumi, Yasuo
- Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2017
- epithelial cells, epithelium, gold, human cell lines, intestines, nanogold, nanosilver, permeability, silver
- When considering the safety of ingested nanomaterials, it is important to quantitate their transfer across intestinal cells; however, little information exists about the effects of nanomaterial size or exposure side (apical versus basolateral epithelial surface) on nanomaterial transfer. Here, we examined cellular internalization and transcellular transport, and the effects of nanomaterials on Caco-2 monolayers after apical or basolateral exposure to Ag or Au nanoparticles with various sizes. After apical treatment, both internalization and transfer to the basolateral side of the monolayers were greater for smaller Ag nanoparticles than for larger Ag nanoparticles. In contrast, after basolateral treatment, larger Ag nanoparticles were more internalized than smaller Ag nanoparticles, but the transfer to the apical side was greater for smaller Ag nanoparticles. Au nanoparticles showed different rules of internalization and transcellular transport compared with Ag nanoparticles. Furthermore, the paracellular permeability of the Caco-2 monolayers was temporarily increased by Ag nanoparticles (5 μg/mL; diameters, ≤10 nm) following basolateral but not apical exposure. We conclude that the internalization, transfer, and effects of nanomaterials in epithelial cell monolayers depend on the size and composition of nanomaterials, and the exposure side.