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Mechanisms of Fe biofortification and mitigation of Cd accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown hydroponically with Fe chelate fertilization

Chen, Zhe, Tang, Ye-Tao, Zhou, Can, Xie, Shu-Ting, Xiao, Shi, Baker, Alan J.M., Qiu, Rong-Liang
Chemosphere 2017
Oryza sativa, biofortification, cadmium, chelates, fertilizer application, food safety, gene expression, genes, hydroponics, iron, iron fertilizers, leaves, meristems, nutrient deficiencies, phloem, photosynthesis, rice, roots, xylem, China
Cadmium contaminated rice from China has become a global food safety issue. Some research has suggested that chelate addition to substrates can affect metal speciation and plant metal content. We investigated the mitigation of Cd accumulation in hydroponically-grown rice supplied with EDTANa2Fe(II) or EDDHAFe(III).A japonica rice variety (Nipponbare) was grown in modified Kimura B solution containing three concentrations (0, 10, 100 μΜ) of the iron chelates EDTANa2Fe(II) or EDDHAFe(III) and 1 μΜ Cd. Metal speciation in solution was simulated by Geochem-EZ; growth and photosynthetic efficiency of rice were evaluated, and accumulation of Cd and Fe in plant parts was determined. Net Cd fluxes in the meristematic zone, growth zone, and maturation zone of roots were monitored by a non-invasive micro-test technology. Expression of Fe- and Cd-related genes in Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient roots and leaves were studied by QRT-PCR.Compared to Fe deficiency, a sufficient or excess supply of Fe chelates significantly enhanced rice growth by elevating photosynthetic efficiency. Both Fe chelates increased the Fe content and decreased the Cd content of rice organs, except for the Cd content of roots treated with excess EDDHAFe(III). Compared to EDDHAFe(III), EDTANa2Fe(II) exhibited better mitigation of Cd accumulation in rice by generating the EDTANa2Cd complex in solution, decreasing net Cd influx and increasing net Cd efflux in root micro-zones. Application of EDTANa2Fe(II) and EDDHAFe(III) also reduced Cd accumulation in rice by inhibiting expression of genes involved in transport of Fe and Cd in the xylem and phloem.The ‘win-win’ situation of Fe biofortification and Cd mitigation in rice was achieved by application of Fe chelates. Root-to-stem xylem transport of Cd and redistribution of Cd in leaves by phloem transport can be regulated in rice through the use of Fe chelates that influence Fe availability and Fe-related gene expression. Fe fertilization decreased Cd influx and increased Cd efflux in rice roots.