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Improvement of cyanobacterial-killing biologically derived substances (BDSs) using an ecologically safe and cost-effective naphthoquinone derivative

Joo, Jae-Hyoung, Wang, Pengbin, Park, Bum Soo, Byun, Jeong-Hwan, Choi, Hye Jeong, Kim, Seong Hun, Han, Myung-Soo
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2017
Aphanizomenon, Aulacoseira, Cosmarium, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Danio rerio, Daphnia magna, Microcystis, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Selenastrum capricornutum, Stephanodiscus, Synedra, algae, algal blooms, algicides, cost effectiveness, half life, reproduction, survival rate, toxicity
In previous studies, naphthoquinone (NQ) compounds have been shown to be effective, selective, and ecologically safe algicides for controlling harmful algal blooming species (HABs) or winter bloom species, such as Stephanodiscus hantzschii. However, there are no reports on NQ-based algicides for use with cyanobacterial blooming species. In this study, we developed 31 NQ compounds to investigate algicides for mitigating cyanobacterial blooms. In addition, to better apply these compounds in the field, we reduced the number of production steps to develop a cost-effective algicide. In preliminary testing, we screened NQ compounds that showed the best algicidal activity on target cyanobacteria, including Aphanizomenon, Dolichospermum, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, and Nostoc species. The compound NQ 2-0 showed the highest algicidal activity (90%) at a low concentration (≥ 1μM) on target algae. These were very limiting algicidal effects of 1µM NQ 2-0 observed against non-target algae, such as diatoms (Stephanodiscus hantzschii, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra acus, and Aulacoseira granulata) or green algae (Cosmarium bioculatum and Scenedesmus quadricauda), and the effect did not exceed 15%-25% (except against S. quadricauda). NQ 2-0 (1μM) showed no eco-toxicity, as represented by the survival rates of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (100%), Daphnia magna (100%), and Danio rerio (100%). Additionally, a chronic eco-toxicity assessment showed no toxicity toward the survival, growth or reproduction of D. magna. Moreover, NQ 2-0 quickly dissipated from field water samples and had a half-life of approximately 3.2 days. These results suggest that NQ 2-0 could be a selective and ecologically safe algicide to mitigate harmful cyanobacterial blooms.