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Extractability and chromatographic separation of rye (Secale cereale L.) flour proteins

Redant, Lore, Buggenhout, Joke, Brijs, Kristof, Delcour, Jan A.
Journal of cereal science 2017 v.73 pp. 68-75
Secale cereale, albumins, barley, buffers, crosslinking, dithiothreitol, globulins, high performance liquid chromatography, molecular weight, pH, protein aggregates, rice, rye, rye flour, sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium phosphate, wheat
A size exclusion – high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) method originally developed for separating wheat, barley or rice proteins was applied to study the extractability and molecular weight (MW) distribution of rye flour proteins. These were extracted with 50 mmol/l sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) containing 2.0% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and, optionally, 1.0% (w/v) dithiothreitol (DTT). About 95% of the proteins were extracted in buffer containing 2.0% SDS. Addition of 1.0% DTT to such buffer increased the protein extractability to 100%, indicating that rye flour contains some proteins cross-linked by disulfide (SS) bonds. The SE-HPLC profiles revealed that rye flour contains SS-linked HMW-secalins and 75 k γ-secalins which elute in specific peaks. Upon reduction, these SS-linked protein aggregates dissociate and some entrapped albumins, globulins and/or ω-secalins are released. Rye flour albumins and globulins elute over the entire SE-HPLC profile. In contrast, the monomeric ω-secalins and 40 k γ-secalins are detected in specific well resolved SE-HPLC peaks. The applied fast and reproducible method can be used to characterise and quantify rye flour proteins and to determine changes as a result of processing.