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Advances and challenges in value chain development in 'Kinnow' mandarin and mango industries of Pakistan
- Malik, A. U., Amin, M., Asad, H. U.
- Acta horticulturae 2016 no.1128 pp. 277-284
- developed countries, exports, finance, growers, harvesting, horticulture, industry, infrastructure, labor, mandarins, mangoes, market access, marketing, orchards, postharvest technology, private sector, purchasing, shelf life, shipping, socioeconomics, summer, supply chain, taste, value-added products, Europe, Pakistan
- 'Kinnow' mandarin and mango are the leading fruit industries of Pakistan. Although, these industries differ in geographic and socio-economic aspects they do, however, share some inherent issues in production (finance, nurseries, management, quality, etc.) and diverse challenges in postharvest (skilled labour, infrastructure, etc.) and marketing (domestic and export). The 'Kinnow' industry is concentrated in central to upper Punjab Province, with smaller production units, but more developed in terms of infrastructure and export marketing; the mango industry is spread over a 600-km belt in the south across two provinces (Punjab and Sindh), with larger production units but lesser developed area. The value chain development in 'Kinnow' industry has been mainly led by the private sector and has become a unique example for other prospective horticultural industries. Developments in the mango industry are more recent and mainly institutionally driven through various international and national projects. The majority of the orchards in both commodities are contracted and marketing is done through commission agents. However, the trend is changing now with direct buying by exporters. In mangoes, more recent on-farm infrastructural developments and capacity building have provided impetus for farm-direct export by growers but they are still constrained by issues such as finance, skilled labour and market linkages. A common feature of the two industries is migrant skilled labour for harvesting, grading and packing, which mostly comes from southern Punjab and moves from lower Sindh, starting with the mango harvest in May, and continues through summer working in Punjab for mangoes, then after a pause (October) moves to the 'Kinnow' industry, where it continues until March. While 'Kinnow' has better shipping life and a comparatively stable market, export marketing remains challenging due to increasing competition and changing requirements and market access issues. Mango, with limited harvest window and shelf life has many postharvest management and marketing issues, although gaining momentum due to its exotic taste and various value-added products, and developments in its prospects for sea-freighting to distant markets like Europe. This analysis of two industries provides useful lessons for future developments and policy formulation for other industries in Pakistan and in other less industrialized countries.