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Ant fauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen): zoogeography, distribution and description of a new species

Sharaf, Mostafa R., Fisher, Brian L., Collingwood, Cedric A., Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.
Journal of natural history 2017 v.51 no.5-6 pp. 317-378
Cardiocondyla, Cryptobia, Monomorium, Pheidole pallidula, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Tetramorium, animals, anthropogenic activities, fauna, invasive species, new species, surveys, zoogeography, Yemen
The animal fauna of the Socotra Archipelago is influenced by three biogeographical regions, the Afrotropical, the Oriental and the Palaearctic. Consequently, the Archipelago shares faunal elements of these three regions in addition to unique endemic taxa. The ant fauna of Socotra Island was studied and is reviewed based on literature and newly collected material. In total, 28 species, belonging to 10 genera and four subfamilies, were collected from the main island. Eighteen of these (64%) are successful invasive species, seven are native (25%), and three are considered endemic (11%), Cardiocondyla longiceps Seifert, Monomorium elghazalyi sp. nov. and Monomorium nimihil Collingwood et al. Two genera are recorded for the first time from the island, Hypoponera Santschi, and Syllophopsis Santschi. Ten species are recorded for the first time, Cardiocondyla mauritanica Forel, Cardiocondyla minutior Forel, Monomorium atomum Forel, Monomorium dichroum Forel, Monomorium exiguum Forel, Pheidole pallidula (Nylander), Syllophopsis cryptobia (Santschi), Tetramorium pauper Forel, Tetramorium transformans Santschi and Hypoponera punctatissima (Roger). Ten invasive species are recorded from Socotra, reflecting human impacts on the Archipelago. These species are Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius), Cardiocondyla emeryi Forel, Monomorium exiguum Forel, Pheidole indica Mayr, Syllophopsis cryptobia (Santschi), Tetramorium lanuginosum Mayr, Tetramorium simillimum (Smith), Tetramorium caldarium (Roger), Trichomyrmex destructor (Jerdon) and Trichomyrmex mayri (Forel). Our survey indicated a mixture of Afrotropical faunal elements (10 species, 36%), followed by cosmopolitan (nine species, 32%), Palaearctic (five species, 18%) and Oriental (four species, 14%) taxa. Two new synonyms of Monomorium exiguum Forel are proposed: Monomorium exiguum Forel = Monomorium baushare Collingwood & Agosti syn. nov. = Monomorium qarahe Collingwood & Agosti syn. nov. Tetramorium transformans Santschi is removed from synonymy with Tetramorium caldarium (Roger) and elevated to species rank. Ecological and biological notes for each species are given. Distribution maps for all species known from the Socotra Archipelago are provided. http://zoobank/