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Encapsulation of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticle (Gd2O3) Contrasting Agents in PAMAM Dendrimer Templates for Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Vivo

Mekuria, Shewaye Lakew, Debele, Tilahun Ayane, Tsai, Hsieh-Chih
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2017 v.9 no.8 pp. 6782-6795
biocompatibility, bladder, encapsulation, gadolinium, intestines, kidneys, liver, macrophages, magnetic resonance imaging, nanoparticles, polyethylene glycol, spleen
There has been growing interest in the research of nanomaterials for biomedical applications in recent decades. Herein, a simple approach to synthesize the G4.5-Gd₂O₃-poly(ethylene glycol) (G4.5-Gd₂O₃-PEG) nanoparticles (NPs) that demonstrate potential as dual (T₁ and T₂) contrasting agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been reported in this study. Compared to the clinically popular Gd-DTPA contrasting agents, G4.5-Gd₂O₃-PEG NPs exhibited a longer longitudinal relaxation time (T₁) and better biocompatibility when incubated with macrophage cell line RAW264.7 in vitro. Furthermore, the longitudinal relaxivity (r₁) of G4.5-Gd₂O₃-PEG NPs was 53.9 s–¹ mM–¹ at 7T, which is equivalent to 4.8 times greater than to the Gd-DTPA contrasting agents. An in vivo T₁-weighted MRI results revealed that G4.5-Gd₂O₃-PEG NPs significantly enhanced signals in the intestines, kidney, liver, bladder, and spleen. In addition, the T₂-weighted MRI results revealed darker contrast in the kidney, which proves that G4.5-Gd₂O₃-PEG NPs can be exploited as T₁ and T₂ contrasting agents. In summary, these findings suggest that the G4.5-Gd₂O₃-PEG NPs synthesized by an alternative approach can be used as dual MRI contrasting agents.