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Lippia graveolens photochemopreventive effect against UVB radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis

García-Bores, A.M., Espinosa-González, A.M., Reyna-Campos, A., Cruz-Toscano, S., Benítez-Flores, J.C., Hernández-Delgado, C.T., Flores-Maya, S., Urzúa-Meza, M., Peñalosa-Castro, I., Céspedes-Acuña, C.L., Avila-Acevedo, J.G.
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology 2017 v.167 pp. 72-81
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Escherichia coli, Lippia graveolens, carcinogenesis, cell death, condiments, cuisine, genotoxicity, headache, hydroxyl radicals, iridoids, mice, mutagens, naringenin, plant extracts, skin neoplasms, spectral analysis, topical application, traditional medicine, ultraviolet radiation
Lippia graveolens HBK (Mexican oregano) is a species that is regularly used as a condiment in Mexican cuisine. In traditional medicine, it is used for the treatment of respiratory and digestive illnesses, headaches, rheumatism and inflammation-related disorders. The main chemical components reported in this species include the following: terpenoids, iridoids and flavonoids. The aim of this study was to determine the potential photochemopreventive effect of the methanolic extract of Lippia graveolens (MELG) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin cancer in SKH-1 mice. The phenolic content, radical scavenger activity, penetration and genotoxicity of the MELG were also evaluated. The MELG exhibited scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and it did not exhibit genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. In addition, the MELG absorbed UVB (280nm) electromagnetic radiation. The main components detected in the plant extract were naringenin and galangin, and pinocembrin was also isolated and identified through spectroscopic analysis. The MELG demonstrated a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced cell death in Escherichia coli. In chronic challenge experiments, the MELG protected against UVB-induced skin cancer in SKH-1 mice. The MELG penetrated the skin of mice. Topical administration of the MELG protected against chronic UVB-induced damage in mouse SKH-1 skin. Our results suggest that the MELG has photochemopreventive activity and may potentially prevent photo-tumorigenesis.