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Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as partial or total replacement of marine fish meal in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

Vaun C. Cummins, Steven D. Rawles, Kenneth R. Thompson, Alejandro Velasquez, Yuka Kobayashi, Janelle Hager, Carl D. Webster
Aquaculture 2017 v.473 no. pp. 337-344
Hermetia illucens, Litopenaeus vannamei, Oncorhynchus mykiss, amino acid composition, aquariums, catfish, crude protein, dietary protein, dose response, energy, experimental diets, fish meal, food conversion, ingredients, insect larvae, juveniles, limiting amino acids, lipid content, marine fish, menhaden, nutrient content, nutritional intervention, protein sources, regression analysis, saline water, shrimp, soybean meal, specific growth rate, weight gain
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal, produced from the larvae of Hermetia illucens, has shown promise as a fish meal (FM) replacement in diets for rainbow trout, catfish and tilapia, but has not been examined as an alternative protein source in shrimp diets. Six isonitrogenous (35% crude protein, as fed) and isoenergetic (16.7kJ available energy g−1 of diet) diets containing graded levels of BSFL as replacements for protein from menhaden FM were fed to juvenile (1.24g±0.01; mean±SE) Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Diet 1 (the control) was formulated similar to a commercial shrimp diet containing 25% menhaden FM and 23% soybean meal. Diets 2–6 were formulated as a dose-response series that progressively replaced protein from menhaden FM with BSFL meal at inclusion rates of 7%, 14%, 21%, 28%, and 36% of diet; this equated to progressively replacing 16.5% of dietary protein provided by menhaden FM. Diets were fed to juvenile shrimp stocked into eighteen 110-L saltwater aquaria (30ppt) (three replicates per dietary treatment) at a density of 15 shrimp per aquarium (50/m2) for 63days. Nonlinear and spline regression analysis of responses indicated that the maximum level of BSFL meal inclusion varied significantly with the response being modeled. Generally, without modification of the ingredient or replacement diet nutrient profiles, 95% to 100% of most growth responses, i.e., shrimp final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and food conversion, could be obtained if replacement of FM by BSFL meal was limited to <25% of the diet, depending on performance measure. Similarly, 95% or greater of maximum whole-body protein and lipid content could be achieved when BSFL inclusion was restricted to <29% and 15%, respectively. Comparison of amino acid profiles in the test diets with recent requirement estimates for limiting amino acids in BSFL meal also suggest future strategies for increasing dietary substitution of FM with BSFL.