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Manipulation of the innate immune response by human papillomaviruses
- Hong, Shiyuan, Laimins, Laimonis A.
- Virus research 2017 v.231 pp. 34-40
- DNA damage, Papillomaviridae, animal pathogens, chronic diseases, drugs, genome, humans, innate immunity, interferons, neoplasms, transcription (genetics), transcription factors
- The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against infections by pathogens. Successful pathogens such as human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have evolved mechanisms that target several points in these pathways including sensing of viral genomes, blocking the synthesis of interferons and inhibiting the action of JAK/STAT transcription factors. Disruption of these inhibitory mechanisms contributes to the ability of HPVs to establish persistent infections, which is the major etiological factor in the development of anogenital cancers. Interestingly, HPVs also positively activate several members of these pathways such as STAT-5 that are important for their differentiation-dependent life cycle. STAT-5 activation induces the ATM and ATR DNA damage response pathways that play critical roles in HPV genome amplification. Targeting of these pathways by pharmaceuticals can provide novel opportunities to inhibit infections by these important human pathogens.