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Dietary patterns and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A population-based case–control study in a rural population

Xudong Liu, Xiaorong Wang, Sihao Lin, Xiangqian Lao, Jin Zhao, Qingkun Song, Xuefen Su, Ignatius Tak-Sun Yu
Clinical nutrition 2017 v.36 pp. 260-266
alcohol drinking, case-control studies, confidence interval, eating habits, esophageal neoplasms, factor analysis, food frequency questionnaires, fruits, odds ratio, processed foods, regression analysis, risk, rural population, squamous cell carcinoma, vegetables, China
Few studies were available in exploring the roles of dietary patterns in the development of esophageal cancer, especially in China. This study aimed to investigate the roles of dietary patterns in the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Chinese rural population.A population-based cases–control study was designed and conducted in Yanting County, Sichuan Province of China during two years (between June 2011 and May 2013). A total of 942 pairs of ESCC cases and controls were recruited. A food frequency questionnaire was adopted to collect information of dietary consumption. Dietary patterns were extracted by using principle component and factor analysis based on 24 dietary groups. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by using logistic regression model, with adjustment for possible confounding variables.Four major dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as “prudent”, “vegetable and fruits”, “processed food” and “alcohol drinking”. In comparison of the highest with the lowest quartiles of pattern scores, the processed food pattern (OR: 2.84, 95% CI: 2.13–3.80) and alcohol drinking pattern (OR: 2.69, 95% CI: 1.95–3.71) were significantly associated with an increased risk of ESCC, while the vegetable and fruit pattern (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53–0.92) was associated with reduced risk by 30%. The prudent pattern was associated with a reduced risk by 33% (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50–0.88) in a multivariate logistic regression model, but no statistical significance was reached in a composite model.The results suggest an important role of dietary patterns in ESCC. Diets rich in vegetables and fruits may decrease the risk of ESCC, whereas diets rich in processed food and drinking alcohol may increase the risk.