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Optimizing Ethanol-Baited Traps for Monitoring Damaging Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Ornamental Nurseries

Reding, Michael E., Schultz, Peter B., Ranger, Christopher M., Oliver, Jason B.
Journal of economic entomology 2011 v.104 no.6 pp. 2017
Curculionidae, Hypothenemus, Xyleborinus, Xyleborus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, ambrosia beetles, bait traps, eclosion, emergence traps, ethanol, insect attractants, insect pests, introduced species, ornamental trees, overwintering, plant damage, plant nurseries, plant pests, plant-insect relations, Ohio, Virginia
The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are serious pests in ornamental tree nurseries. We tested different rates of commercially available pouch-style ethanol lures in bottle-traps to optimize bottle-traps as a monitoring system for use in nurseries. Trials were conducted in Ohio (2008 and 2009) and Virginia (2008), two states that have experienced significant damage from X. crassiusculus and/or X. germanus. There were 4 treatments: no-lure, 1-lure, 2-lure and 1+1-lure (1 lure in the trap and 1 suspended 0.5 m above the trap). Captures of X. crassiusculus and X. germanus were higher in all ethanol treatments than unbaited controls (no-lure), and were generally higher in treatments with two lures versus one. There was no difference between the 2-lure and 1+1-lure treatments. First detection of X. crassiusculus and X. germanus occurred more consistently in the treatments with two lures than one lure. Xyleborinus saxeseni (Ratzeburg), Anisandrus sayi Hopkins, Hypothenemus dissimilis Zimmermann and H. eruditus Westwood were also more attracted to traps baited with ethanol than unbaited controls. Xyleborinus saxeseni was captured in higher numbers in the treatments with two lures than one in Virginia but not Ohio. There was no difference in captures of the other species among ethanol treatments. The current research shows that ethanol release rates influence sensitivity of traps for detecting emergence of overwintered ambrosia beetles.