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Abdominal ultrasonography as an adjunct to clinical examination in sheep

Scott, P.
Small ruminant research 2017 v.152 pp. 132-143
bladder, cattle, clinical examination, cortex, equipment, farms, flocks, gastrointestinal system, kidneys, liver flukes, pelvis, prognosis, sheep, surgery, ultrasonography, urolithiasis, veterinarians
Modern portable ultrasound machines provide the veterinary clinician with an inexpensive and non-invasive method to further examine sheep on farm, which would take no more than 2–5min with results available immediately. Trans-abdominal ultrasonographic examination provides veterinarians with valuable information regarding bladder distension and uroperitoneum caused by obstructive urolithiasis, which greatly facilitates prompt corrective surgery. Advanced hydronephrosis, which affords a grave prognosis for urolithiasis cases, is readily identified by an increased renal pelvis and thinned cortex. Unless caused by large numbers of migrating immature liver flukes, accumulation of inflammatory exudate in the peritoneal cavity is uncommon in sheep. Unlike cattle, infection arising from the gastrointestinal tract, e.g., traumatic reticuloperitonitis, is rare in sheep. Renal, intestinal, kidney and bladder tumours can be identified during ultrasonographic examination, but these conditions affect individual sheep and are not a significant flock problem.