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Creation of a high-amylose durum wheat through mutagenesis of starch synthase II (SSIIa)

A.C. Hogg, K. Gause, P. Hofer, J.M. Martin, R.A. Graybosch, L.E. Hansen, M.J. Giroux
Journal of cereal science 2013 v.57 no.3 pp. 377-383
amylopectin, amylose, durum wheat, firmness, gene expression, genes, glycemic index, missense mutation, mutagenesis, pasta, progeny, screening, seeds, starch granules, starch synthase, transgenic plants, value added
In cereal seeds, mutations in one or more starch synthases lead to decreased amylopectin and increased amylose content. Here, the impact of starch synthase IIa (SSIIa or SGP-1) mutations upon durum starch was investigated. A screen of durum accessions identified two lines lacking SGP-A1, the A genome copy of SGP-1. The two lines were determined to carry a 29 bp deletion in the first exon of SSIIa. The SGP-A1 nulls were crossed with the durum variety ‘Mountrail’ and F5 derived SGP-A1 null progeny lines were treated with EMS. From each EMS population, one SGP-B1 null mutation was recovered with each being a missense mutation. Each of the SGP-1 nulls was found to have large increases in amylose content and reduced binding of SGP-2 and SGP-3 to the interior of starch granules. RNA-Seq was used to examine the impact the loss of SGP-1 has upon other starch biosynthetic genes. Significant increases in transcript levels of several starch biosynthetic genes were observed in SGP-1 nulls relative to Mountrail. The resultant high amylose durums may prove useful in the creation of value added pasta with increased firmness and reduced glycemic index.