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A homolog of teleostean signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus: Structural insights, transcriptional modulation, and subcellular localization

Bathige, S.D.N.K., Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar, Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer, Jayasinghe, J.D.H.E., Wan, Qiang, Nam, Bo-Hye, Lee, Jehee
Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2017 v.186 pp. 29-40
DNA-binding domains, Edwardsiella tarda, Iridovirus, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Streptococcus iniae, amino acid sequences, bacteria, bacterial artificial chromosomes, blood, bream, exons, fish diseases, gene expression, genes, growth factors, heart, immune system, interleukin-10, interleukin-12, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, interleukin-9, liver, messenger RNA, non-specific protein-tyrosine kinase, oxidative stress, phylogeny, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, signal transduction, tissues, transactivators, transcription (genetics), transcriptional activation, viruses
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is one of the crucial transcription factors in the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT signaling pathway, and it was previously considered as acute phase response factor. A number of interleukins (ILs) such as IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-22 are known to be involved in activation of STAT3. In addition, various growth factors and pathogenic or oxidative stresses mediate the activation of a wide range of functions via STAT3. In this study, a STAT3 homolog was identified and functionally characterized from rock bream (RbSTAT3), Oplegnathus fasciatus. In silico characterization revealed that the RbSTAT3 amino acid sequence shares highly conserved common domain architectural features including N-terminal domain, coiled coil domain, DNA binding domain, linker domain, and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains. In addition, a fairly conserved transcriptional activation domain (TAD) was located at the C-terminus. Comparison of RbSTAT3 with other counterparts revealed higher identities (>90%) with fish orthologs. The genomic sequence of RbSTAT3 was obtained from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, and was identified as a multi-exonic gene (24 exons), as found in other vertebrates. Genomic structural comparison and phylogenetic studies have showed that the evolutionary routes of teleostean and non-teleostean vertebrates were distinct. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that the spatial distribution of RbSTAT3 mRNA expression was ubiquitous and highly detectable in blood, heart, and liver tissues. Transcriptional modulation of RbSTAT3 was examined in blood and liver tissues after challenges with bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae), rock bream irido virus (RBIV), and immune stimulants (LPS and poly (I:C)). Significant changes in RbSTAT3 transcription were also observed in response to tissue injury. In addition, the transcriptional up-regulation of RbSTAT3 was detected in rock bream heart cells upon recombinant rock bream IL-10 (rRbIL-10) treatment. Subcellular localization and nuclear translocation of rock bream STAT3 following poly (I:C) treatment were also demonstrated. Taken together, the results of the current study provide important evidence for potential roles of rock bream STAT3 in the immune system and wound healing processes.