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Validation of the baking process as a kill-step for controlling Salmonella in muffins
- Channaiah, Lakshmikantha H., Michael, Minto, Acuff, Jennifer C., Phebus, Randall K., Thippareddi, Harshavardhan, Olewnik, Maureen, Milliken, George
- International journal of food microbiology 2017 v.250 pp. 1-6
- Salmonella, baking, batters, cooling, flour, heat inactivation, ingredients, muffins, risk, serotypes, temperature, water activity
- This research investigates the potential risk of Salmonella in muffins when contamination is introduced via flour, the main ingredient. Flour was inoculated with a 3-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Newport, Typhimurium, and Senftenberg) and re-dried to achieve a target concentration of ~8logCFU/g. The inoculated flour was then used to prepare muffin batter following a standard commercial recipe. The survival of Salmonella during and after baking at 190.6°C for 21min was analyzed by plating samples on selective and injury-recovery media at regular intervals. The thermal inactivation parameters (D and z values) of the 3-strain Salmonella cocktail were determined. A ≥5logCFU/g reduction in Salmonella population was demonstrated by 17min of baking, and a 6.1logCFU/g reduction in Salmonella population by 21min of baking. The D-values of Salmonella serovar cocktail in muffin batter were 62.2±3.0, 40.1±0.9 and 16.5±1.7min at 55, 58 and 61°C, respectively; and the z-value was 10.4±0.6°C. The water activity (aw) of the muffin crumb (0.928) after baking and 30min of cooling was similar to that of pre-baked muffin batter, whereas the aw of the muffin crust decreased to (0.700). This study validates a typical commercial muffin baking process utilizing an oven temperature of 190.6°C for at least 17min as an effective kill-step in reducing a Salmonella serovar population by ≥5logCFU/g.