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Mosla scabra flavonoids ameliorate the influenza A virus-induced lung injury and water transport abnormality via the inhibition of PRR and AQP signaling pathways in mice
- Yu, Chen-Huan, Yu, Wen-Ying, Fang, Jie, Zhang, Huan-Huan, Ma, Yue, Yu, Bing, Wu, Fang, Wu, Xiao-Ning
- Journal of ethnopharmacology 2016 v.179 pp. 146-155
- Influenza A virus, Toll-like receptor 7, Western blotting, antioxidants, apoptosis, blood serum, caspase-3, cough, edema, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fever, flavonoids, immunomodulators, inflammation, influenza, interferon-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, lungs, medicinal plants, messenger RNA, mice, protein kinase C, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, signal transduction, staining, traditional medicine, transcription factor NF-kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, East Asia
- Mosla scabra (Thunb.) C.Y. Wu and H.W. Li has been used as a traditional medicinal herb for centuries in East Asian countries. It has antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In folk medicine, it is used as a remedy for the treatment of pulmonary diseases, such as fever, cold, cough, pulmonary edema and emphysema.This study was to investigate the protective mechanism of total flavonoids from M. scabra (MF) in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected mice.The mice were infected with IAV and then were treated daily with MF for five days. At the end of the experiment, the levels of inflammatory-related cytokines (IFN-α, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β) were determined by ELISA. Pathological changes of lung tissue were examined by H&E staining. The protein expressions of AQP5, p-p38, caspase-3 and NF-κB p65 were detected by western blot analysis while the gene expressions of key effectors in AQP5 and PRRs signaling pathways were detected by real-time Fluorescence Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFQ-PCR) analysis.The results showed that treatment with MF at doses of 120–360mg/kg for five days to IAV-infected mice significantly attenuated IAV-induced pulmonary injury and decreased the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β, but increased IFN-α levels. MF treatment could up-regulate the mRNA expressions of TLR-7, RIG-1, TRAF6, Bcl-2, Bax, VIPR1, PKCα and AQP5 and down-regulate caspase-3 and NF-κB p65 protein expression.Treatment with MF could significantly alleviate IAV-induced pulmonary inflammation, apoptosis and water transport abnormality, which was probably through the regulation of TLR7, RIG-1 and AQP5 signaling pathway.