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Systemic arterial hypertension secondary to chronic kidney disease in two captive-born large felids

Leclerc, A., Trehiou-Sechi, E., Greunz, E.M., Damoiseaux, C., Bouvard, J., Chetboul, V.
Journal of veterinary cardiology 2017 v.19 no.3 pp. 308-316
Panthera pardus, Panthera uncia, anesthesia, blood pressure, cats, drugs, echocardiography, females, heart, heart valve diseases, hypertension, kidney diseases, males, patients
Systemic arterial hypertension (SHT) has been widely described in the domestic cat (Felis catus). In these feline patients, SHT is considered as the most common vascular disorder of middle-aged to older animals, and secondary SHT related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents the most common form of the disease.We describe here the first two cases of spontaneous SHT in large felids, i.e. one 18-year old, 34.4 kg, male North-Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis, case #1) and one 20-year old, 28.7 kg, female snow leopard (Panthera uncia, case #2), both captive-bred and previously diagnosed with CKD. Both animals underwent complete echocardiographic examination under general anesthesia due to abnormal cardiac auscultation (heart murmur and/or gallop sound), and recurrent lethargy in case #1. The combination of left ventricular remodeling with moderate aortic regurgitation of high velocity was highly suggestive of SHT, which was confirmed by indirect blood pressure measurement (systolic arterial blood pressure of 183 mmHg for case #1 and 180 mmHg for case #2). Amlodipine was prescribed (0.35–0.70 mg/kg/day orally) for 31 and 6 months respectively after the initial diagnosis. In case #1, concurrent amlodipine and benazepril treatment was associated with decreased heart murmur grade and reduced aortic insufficiency severity. These reports illustrate that, similarly to domestic cats, SHT should be suspected in old large felids with CKD and that amlodipine is a well-tolerated antihypertensive drug in these species.