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Handgrip strength: Reference values and its relationship with bioimpedance and anthropometric variables

Rodríguez-García, Wendy Daniella, García-Castañeda, Luis, Orea-Tejeda, Arturo, Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor, González-Islas, Dulce Gabriela, Santillán-Díaz, Cira, Castillo-Martínez, Lilia
Clinical nutrition ESPEN 2017 v.19 pp. 54-58
Mexicans, anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance, diet, elderly, gender, men, muscles, normal values, women, wood, Mexico, United Kingdom
Handgrip strength by dynamometry is an anthropometric measurement used to estimate muscle function in healthy adults, predict functional limitations, disabilities and survival in older people. Low handgrip strength is considered a better predictor of clinical outcomes than low muscle mass when it is measured in standard conditions and compared with reference populations. It is well known that age, sex and height are the most important factors correlated with handgrip strength. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for handgrip strength in Mexican adults for both genders and identify its relationship with anthropometric factors.Cross-sectional study with 902 apparently healthy adults (478 women and 424 men) older than 20 years old from Mexico City. Personal data, dietary information and anthropometry were assessed. Handgrip strength was measured in dominant hand with a Smedley Hand Dynamometer (Stoelting, Wood Dale, UK).Mexican population presented the maximum strength at 30 years of age decreasing continuously further on (p < 0.001). Handgrip is higher in men than in women for all age ranges. The correlation between height and handgrip strength was stronger (r = 0.757, p < 0.001) compared with the observed correlation between handgrip strength and diet (r = 0.397, p < 0.001). In contrast, occupation showed no correlation (r = 0.057, p = 0.123). We present reference values of handgrip strength for each gender and age categories. Also, we proposed tables with the index of handgrip strength adjusted by the squared of height.Height is the anthropometric factor with higher correlation to handgrip strength. Factors such as nutrition and occupation had a weak correlation with handgrip. Use of these reference values stratified by age and sex will allow us to have an assessing tool to evaluate muscle functionality in Mexican people with characteristics similar to this study.