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Comparison of fecal DNA extraction kits for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction
- Leite, Fernando L., Stokes, Kevin D., Robbe-Austerman, Suelee, Stabel, Judith R.
- DNA, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, cattle, cell walls, disease diagnosis, extraction, feces, microbial detection, paratuberculosis, polymerase chain reaction, purity, shedding, transposons, yields
- Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from feces has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis for many years. However, direct fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is becoming more widely used, demonstrating similar sensitivity and specificity to culture. To ensure efficient and reproducible PCR results from a difficult sample matrix such as feces, there are many obstacles that a DNA extraction method must overcome, including the presence of inhibitors and the thick waxy cell wall of MAP. In the current study, 6 commercial DNA extraction kits were evaluated using fecal samples from naturally infected cattle shedding various amounts of MAP. Upon extraction, DNA purity and yield were measured, and real-time PCR was performed for detection of the insertion sequence (IS)900 and ISMAP02 targets. The kits evaluated showed significant differences in the purity and yield of DNA obtained. The best results were observed with kits E and A, having identified 94% (16/17) and 76% (13/17) of the positive samples by IS900 PCR, respectively. Both of these kits utilized bead beating in a lysis solution for cell disruption, followed by spin column technology (kit E) or magnetic bead–based technology (kit A) for nucleic acid isolation and purification. Two kits (A and F) demonstrated improved performance when used in conjunction with the respective manufacturer’s PCR test. The present study demonstrates the importance of choosing the correct methodology for the most accurate diagnosis of paratuberculosis through fecal PCR.