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The roles of supernatant of macrophage treated by excretory-secretory products from muscle larvae of Trichinella spiralis on the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts

Bai, X., Wang, X.L., Tang, B., Shi, H.N., Boireau, P., Rosenthal, B., Wu, X.P., Liu, M.Y., Liu, X.L.
Veterinary parasitology 2016 v.231 pp. 83-91
Trichinella spiralis, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, cyclin-dependent kinase, cyclins, excretory-secretory products, in vitro studies, macrophages, mice, muscle larvae, myoblasts, myogenin, myosin heavy chains, nematode infections, skeletal muscle, tissue repair
The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) released by the muscle-larvae (ML) stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ML-ESPs modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. Macrophages exert either beneficial or deleterious effects on tissue repair, depending on their activation/polarization state. They are crucial for skeletal muscle repair, notably, via their actions on myogenic precursor cells. However, these interactions during T. spiralis infection have not been characterized. In the present study, the ability of conditioned medium (CM) from J774A.1 macrophages treated with ML-ESPs to influence the differentiation of murine myoblasts, and the mechanisms of this influence, were investigated in vitro. The results showed that the expression of Myogenic Regulatory Factors (MRFs) MyoD and myogenin, myosin heavy chain (MyHC), and the p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor were reduced in CM treated cells compared to their expression in the control group. These findings indicated that CM inhibited myoblast differentiation. Conversely, CM promoted myoblast proliferation and increased cyclin D1 levels. Taken together, results of our study suggested that CM can indirectly influence myoblast differentiation and proliferation, which provides a new method for the elucidation of the complex mechanisms involved in cell-parasite and cell–cell interactions during T. spiralis infection.