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Atractylenolide I stimulates intestinal epithelial repair through polyamine-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathway

Song, Hou-Pan, Hou, Xue-Qin, Li, Ru-Yi, Yu, Rong, Li, Xin, Zhou, Sai-Nan, Huang, Hui-Yong, Cai, Xiong, Zhou, Chi
Phytomedicine 2017 v.28 pp. 27-35
Atractylodes, Western blotting, bioactive compounds, biochemical pathways, calcium, cell movement, cell proliferation, chemical constituents of plants, epithelial cells, flow cytometry, high performance liquid chromatography, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal mucosa, medicinal properties, messenger RNA, peptic ulcers, polyamines, protein synthesis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, rhizomes, sesquiterpenoid lactones, signal transduction, therapeutics, tissue repair
An impairment of the integrity of the mucosal epithelial barrier can be observed in the course of various gastrointestinal diseases. The migration and proliferation of the intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells are essential repair modalities to the healing of mucosal ulcers and wounds. Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the major bioactive components in the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (AMR), possesses multiple pharmacological activities. This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of AT-I on gastrointestinal mucosal injury.Scratch method with a gel-loading microtip was used to detect IEC-6 cell migration. The real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) system was adopted to evaluate IEC-6 cell proliferation. Intracellular polyamines content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Flow cytometry was used to measure cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]c). mRNA and protein expression of TRPC1 and PLC-γ1 were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting assay respectively.Treatment of IEC-6 cells with AT-I promoted cell migration and proliferation, increased polyamines content, raised cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]c), and enhanced TRPC1 and PLC-γ1 mRNA and protein expression. Depletion of cellular polyamines by DL-a-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis) suppressed cell migration and proliferation, decreased polyamines content, and reduced [Ca²⁺]c, which was paralleled by a decrease in TRPC1 and PLC-γ1 mRNA and protein expression in IEC-6 cells. AT-I reversed the effects of DFMO on polyamines content, [Ca²⁺]c, TRPC1 and PLC-γ1 mRNA and protein expression, and restored IEC-6 cell migration and proliferation to near normal levels.Our data demonstrate that AT-I stimulates intestinal epithelial cell migration and proliferation via the polyamine-mediated Ca²⁺ signaling pathway. Therefore, AT-I may have the potential to be further developed as a promising therapeutic agent to treat diseases associated with gastrointestinal mucosal injury, such as inflammatory bowel disease and peptic ulcer.