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Valorization of industrial wastes from French maritime pine bark by solvent free microwave extraction of volatiles

Mellouk, Hamid, Meullemiestre, Alice, Maache-Rezzoug, Zoulikha, Bejjani, Bouchra, Dani, Adil, Rezzoug, Sid-Ahmed
Journal of cleaner production 2016 v.112 pp. 4398-4405
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Pinus pinaster, antioxidant activity, bark, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, hydrodistillation, industrial wastes, irradiation, microwave treatment, oils, response surface methodology, solvents
Solvent Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) of oil from French maritime pine bark waste and its antioxidant activity were investigated and compared to classical hydrodistillation (HD) method (Clevenger apparatus). A central composite design combined with response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the simultaneous influences of irradiation power and irradiation time. A maximal extraction yield of 3.48% (g/100 g dry bark) was achieved under optimal extraction time of 92.4 min and an irradiation power of 803.5 W compared 2.2% obtained for the conventional method (HD). Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis showed that SFME extract is richer in oxygenated compounds (∼40%) compared to HD extract with 26%. The results also showed that the two independent variables had a statistical significant effect on the considered responses namely oil yield, total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH). Under optimized conditions, the amount of TPC was 139.15 mg GAE/g extract largely higher than that obtained for HD extraction (14.28 15 mg GAE/g extract) suggesting that SFME represents an interesting alternative technology for production of recoverable oil from waste of French Maritime pine bark. The percentage inhibition was also higher for SFME extraction technique (71.91%) than for HD (56.51%) indicating a higher antioxidant activity.