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G protein signaling in plants: minus times minus equals plus

Stateczny, Dave, Oppenheimer, Jara, Bommert, Peter
Current opinion in plant biology 2016 v.34 pp. 127-135
G-protein coupled receptors, abiotic stress, animals, plants (botany)
Heterotrimeric G proteins are key regulators in the transduction of extracellular signals both in animals and plants. In plants, heterotrimeric G protein signaling plays essential roles in development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, over the last decade it has become clear that plants have unique mechanisms of G protein signaling. Although plants share most of the core components of heterotrimeric G proteins, some of them exhibit unusual properties compared to their animal counterparts. In addition, plants do not share functional GPCRs. Therefore the well-established paradigm of the animal G protein signaling cycle is not applicable in plants. In this review, we summarize recent insights into these unique mechanisms of G protein signaling in plants with special focus on the evident potential of G protein signaling as a target to modify developmental and physiological parameters important for yield increase.