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Inhibition of acrolein-induced autophagy and apoptosis by a glycosaminoglycan from Sepia esculenta ink in mouse Leydig cells
- Gu, Yi-Peng, Yang, Xiao-Mei, Luo, Ping, Li, Yan-Qun, Tao, Ye-Xing, Duan, Zhen-Hua, Xiao, Wei, Zhang, Da-Yan, Liu, Hua-Zhong
- Carbohydrate polymers 2017 v.163 pp. 270-279
- Leydig cells, Sepia, acrolein, animal ovaries, apoptosis, autophagy, cyclophosphamide, glycosaminoglycans, mice, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein content, signal transduction, testosterone, toxicity
- In our recent reports, a squid ink polysaccharide (SIP) was found having preventive activity against cyclophosphamide induced damage in mouse testis and ovary. Here we further reveal the regulative mechanism of SIP against chemical toxicity on testis. Leydig cells exposed to acrolein (ACR) underwent apoptosis at 12h and 24h. Before apoptosis, cells occurred autophagy that was confirmed by high autophagic rate and Beclin-1 protein content at 3h. PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signal pathways involved in the regulatory mechanisms. These outcomes of ACR were recovered completely by SIP, which was demonstrated by attenuated disruption of redox equilibrium and increased testosterone production, through suppressing ACR-caused autophagy and apoptosis regulated by PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signal pathways in Leydig cells. Summarily, autophagy occurred before apoptosis caused by ACR-activated p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways were blocked by SIP, resulting in survival and functional maintenance of Leydig cells.