Main content area

Effects of α-cypermethrin enantiomers on the growth, biochemical parameters and bioaccumulation in Rana nigromaculata tadpoles of the anuran amphibians

Xu, Peng, Huang, Ledan
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2017 v.139 pp. 431-438
Pelophylax nigromaculatus, acute toxicity, amphibians, bioaccumulation, catalase, cypermethrin, enantiomers, glutathione transferase, malondialdehyde, oxidative stress, superoxide dismutase, surface water, tadpoles
Populations of many amphibian species are declining worldwide in part because of pesticide contamination. As a surface water contaminant, α-cypermethrin may have severe ecological impacts on amphibians. Here, we examined the acute toxicity of α-cypermethrin enantiomers to dark-spotted frog Rana nigromaculata tadpoles at 24, 48, 72 and 96h, finding that the tadpoles were indeed sensitive to α-cypermethrin. The (S)-(1R, 3R)-enantiomer was approximately 29 times more toxic than the (R)-(1S, 3S)-enantiomer at 96h. A significant delayed growth in R. nigromaculata tadpoles after exposure to 0.5µgL−1 of S-(1R, 3R)-cypermethrin was observed. Additionally, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicate the presence of oxidative stress in the tadpoles. Further, tadpoles exposed to sublethal concentrations of α-cypermethrin enantiomers exhibited enantioselective growth and oxidative damage. Bioaccumulation experiments showed that the tadpoles could rapidly accumulate α-cypermethrin. The (R)-(1S, 3S)-enantiomer was preferentially accumulated over the (S)-(1R, 3R)-enantiomer, and it was also eliminated more quickly, as evidenced in the subsequent depuration experiments.