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Strategies and knowledge gaps for improving nanomaterial biocompatibility
- Hu, Xiangang, Sun, Anqi, Kang, Weilu, Zhou, Qixing
- Environment international 2017 v.102 pp. 177-189
- biocompatibility, biodegradability, methodology, nanomaterials, occupational exposure
- With rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials, nanosafety has attracted wide attention in all fields related to nanotechnology. As well known, a grand challenge in nanomaterial applications is their biocompatibility. It is urgent to explore effective strategies to control the unintentional effects. Although many novel methods for the synthesis of biocompatible and biodegradable nanomaterials are reported, the control strategy of nanotoxicity remains in its infancy. It is urgent to review the archived strategies for improving nanomaterial biocompatibility to clarify what we have done and where we should be. In this review, the achievements and challenges in nanomaterial structure/surface modifications and size/shape controls were analyzed. Moreover, the chemical and biological strategies to make nanomaterial more biocompatible and biodegradable were compared. Finally, the concerns that have not been studied well were prospected, involving unintended releases, life-cycle, occupational exposure and methodology.