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Organic grain cropping systems to enhance ecosystem services

Michel A. Cavigelli, Steven B. Mirsky, John R. Teasdale, John T. Spargo, John Doran
Renewable agriculture and food systems 2013 v.28 no.2 pp. 145-159
agricultural research, animal manures, carbon sequestration, conventional tillage, corn, cover crops, crop rotation, ecosystem services, emissions, energy, forage, global warming, grain crops, grain yield, greenhouse gases, labor, mineralization, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, no-tillage, nutrient management, nutrient use efficiency, organic production, risk, soil, soil erosion, soil fertility, weeds
Organic grain cropping systems can enhance a number of ecosystem services compared with conventional tilled (CT) systems. Recent results from a limited number of long-term agricultural research (LTAR) studies suggest that organic grain cropping systems can also increase several ecosystem services relative to conventional no-till (NT) cropping systems: soil C sequestration and soil N fertility (N mineralization potential) can be greater while global warming potential (GWP) can be lower in organic systems that use animal manures and cover crops compared with conventional NT systems. However, soil erosion from organic systems and nitrous oxide (N₂O, a greenhouse gas) emissions from manure-based organic systems appear to be greater than from conventional NT systems, though data are limited. Also, crop yields, on average, continue to be lower and labor requirements greater in organic than in both tilled and NT conventional systems. Ecosystem services provided by organic systems may be improved by expanding crop rotations to include greater crop phenological diversity, improving nutrient management, and reducing tillage intensity and frequency. More diverse crop rotations, especially those that include perennial forages, can reduce weed pressure, economic risk, soil erosion, N₂O emissions, animal manure inputs, and soil P loading, while increasing grain yield and soil fertility. Side-dressing animal manures in organic systems may increase corn nitrogen use efficiency and also minimize animal manure inputs. Management practices that reduce tillage frequency and intensity in organic systems are being developed to reduce soil erosion and labor and energy needs. On-going research promises to further augment ecosystem services provided by organic grain cropping systems.