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Effects of lemongrass oil and citral on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, and acetaminophen toxicity in rats

Li, Chien-Chun, Yu, Hsiang-Fu, Chang, Chun-Hua, Liu, Yun-Ta, Yao, Hsien-Tsung
Yàowù shípǐn fēnxī 2018 v.26 no.1 pp. 432-438
Cymbopogon flexuosus, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone), acetaminophen, alanine transaminase, antimicrobial properties, citral, diet, essential oils, industry, lipid peroxidation, liver, males, metabolism, odors, oils, oxidative stress, rats, reactive oxygen species, testosterone, toxicity, uridine, uridine diphosphate
The essential oil from a lemongrass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus [lemongrass oil (LO)] is used in various food and aroma industry products and exhibits biological activities, such as anticancer and antimicrobial activities. To investigate the effects of 200 LO (200 mg/kg) and 400 LO (400 mg/kg) and its major component, citral (240 mg/kg), on drug-metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress, and acetaminophen toxicity in the liver, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a pelleted diet and administered LO or citral by gavage for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks of feeding, the effects of LO and citral on the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen were determined. The results showed that rats treated with 400 LO or citral had significantly reduced hepatic testosterone 6β-hydroxylation and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activities. In addition, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity was significantly increased by citral, and Uridine 5′-diphospho (UDP) glucurosyltransferase activity was significantly increased by 400 LO in the rat liver. Treatment with 400 LO or citral reduced lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels in the liver. After acetaminophen treatment, however, LO and citral treatment resulted in little or no change in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and acetaminophen-protein adducts content in the liver. Our results indicate that LO and citral may change the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes and reduce oxidative stress in the liver. However, LO and citral may not affect the detoxification of acetaminophen.