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Development of a QuEChERS-Based Method for Determination of Carcinogenic 2-Nitrofluorene and 1-Nitropyrene in Rice Grains and Vegetables: A Comparative Study with Benzo[a]pyrene
- Deng, Kailin, Chan, Wan
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.9 pp. 1992-1999
- benzo(a)pyrene, dietary exposure, food contamination, humans, monitoring, mutagenicity, pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, rice, risk, vegetables, China
- Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants attracting increasing attention because of their potent mutagenicity to humans. Previous studies of nitro-PAHs focused on investigating their formation mechanisms and detecting them in atmospheric environment; however, few studies have reported their occurrence in food samples, and regulations on nitro-PAHs are still lacking. We report in this study the development and application of a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for determination of nitro-PAHs in rice and vegetable samples. Analysis of the collected samples by the validated method revealed 1-nitropyrene and 2-nitrofluorene were widespread food contaminants. A comparative study with benzo[a]pyrene, the commonly used marker for PAH exposure, showed that carcinogenic nitro-PAHs existed in rice and vegetables at similar concentrations. Dietary exposure risk, which was estimated based on the surveillance data, suggested 3.28–5.03 ng/kg/day of nitro-PAHs exposure for Hong Kong citizens from rice grains and vegetables.