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Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of Tartary Buckwheat Protein
- Zhang, Chengnan, Zhang, Rui, Li, Yuk Man, Liang, Ning, Zhao, Yimin, Zhu, Hanyue, He, Zouyan, Liu, Jianhui, Hao, Wangjun, Jiao, Rui, Ma, Ka Ying, Chen, Zhen-Yu
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.9 pp. 1900-1906
- ABC transporters, Western blotting, absorption, active ingredients, bile acids, buckwheat, buckwheat flour, cholesterol, cholestyramine, excretion, experimental diets, hamsters, hypercholesterolemia, males, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, quercetin, rice, rice protein, rutin, wheat protein
- Previous research has shown that Tartary buckwheat flour is capable of reducing plasma cholesterol. The present study was to examine the effect of rutin and Tartary buckwheat protein on plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. In the first animal experiment, 40 male hamsters were divided into four groups fed either the control diet or one of the three experimental diets containing 8.2 mmol rutin, 8.2 mmol quercetin, or 2.5 g kg–¹ cholestyramine, respectively. Results showed that only cholestyramine but not rutin and its aglycone quercetin decreased plasma TC, which suggested that rutin was not the active ingredient responsible for plasma TC-lowering activity of Tartary buckwheat flour. In the second animal experiment, 45 male hamsters were divided into five groups fed either the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 24% Tartary buckwheat protein, 24% rice protein, 24% wheat protein, or 5 g kg–¹ cholestyramine, respectively. Tartary buckwheat protein reduced plasma TC more effectively than cholestyramine (45% versus 37%), while rice and wheat proteins only reduced plasma TC by 10–13%. Tartary buckwheat protein caused 108% increase in the fecal excretion of total neutral sterols and 263% increase in the fecal excretion of total acidic sterols. real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses showed that Tartary buckwheat protein affected the gene expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 (NPC1L1), acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), and ATP binding cassette transporters 5 and 8 (ABCG5/8) in a down trend, whereas it increased the gene expression of hepatic cholesterol-7α -hydroxylase (CYP7A1). It was concluded that Tartary buckwheat protein was at least one of the active ingredients in Tartary buckwheat flour to lower plasma TC, mainly mediated by enhancing the excretion of bile acids via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 and also by inhibiting the absorption of dietary cholesterol via down-regulation on intestinal NPC1L1, ACAT2 and ABCG5/8.