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Effects of a combination butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin product and insulin on ketosis resolution and milk production

Gordon, J.L., Duffield, T.F., Herdt, T.H., Kelton, D.F., Neuder, L., LeBlanc, S.J.
Journal of dairy science 2017 v.100 no.4 pp. 2954-2966
3-hydroxybutyric acid, analysis of variance, blood, blood glucose, cows, farms, free stalls, herds, insulin, ketosis, lactation, milk, milk yield, models, placebos, propylene glycol, vitamin B12, Michigan, Ontario
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of butaphosphan-cyanocobalamin (B+C), glargine insulin, and propylene glycol on resolution of ketosis and average daily milk yield after treatment. Cows from 16 herds in Ontario, Canada, and 1 herd in Michigan were tested at weekly intervals between 3 and 16 DIM. Ketosis was defined as blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L. All ketotic cows were given a baseline treatment of 3 d of 300 g of propylene glycol orally. Animals were then randomly assigned to treatment with 3 doses of either 25 mL of B+C or 25 mL of saline placebo and 1 dose of either 2 mL (200 IU) of glargine insulin or 2 mL of saline placebo in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Outcomes of interest on all farms were ketosis cure (blood BHB <1.2 mmol/L 1 wk postenrollment), maintenance of ketosis cure (blood BHB <1.2 mmol/L 1 and 2 wk postenrollment), and blood BHB concentrations at 1 and 2 wk postenrollment. Milk weights were collected daily in 1 large freestall herd. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate blood BHB concentrations 2 wk after treatment and milk production for 30 d after treatment. Poisson regression was used to examine the effect of treatment on cure and maintenance of cure. Due to a regulatory delay causing temporary unavailability of B+C in Canada, data were analyzed in 2 sets of models: one for insulin and the corresponding placebo (n = 620) and one for the full trial (n = 380). Animals with blood glucose concentrations ≤2.2 mmol/L at the time of ketosis diagnosis were 2.1 times more likely (95% CI = 1.2 to 3.7) to be cured if treated with B+C. Animals in lactation 3 or higher that had blood glucose concentrations <2.2 mmol/L at enrollment produced 4.2 kg/d (95% CI = 1.4 to 7.1) more milk if treated with insulin versus placebo and 2.8 kg/d (95% CI = 0.9 to 4.7) more milk if treated with B+C versus placebo. Animals in lactation 3 or higher with blood glucose ≥2.2 mmol/L that were treated with insulin produced 2.3 kg/d (95% CI = 0.3 to 4.4) less milk than untreated controls. No interaction was observed between treatments. This evidence suggests that B+C and insulin may be beneficial for ketosis treatment in animals with blood glucose <2.2 mmol/L at ketosis diagnosis. It also suggests that blood glucose concentration may be an important predictor of success of ketosis treatment.