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A Clostridioides difficile bacteriophage genome encodes functional binary toxin-associated genes
- Riedel, Thomas, Wittmann, Johannes, Bunk, Boyke, Schober, Isabel, Spröer, Cathrin, Gronow, Sabine, Overmann, Jörg
- Journal of biotechnology 2017 v.250 pp. 23-28
- Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, bacteriophages, genes, humans, loci, plasmids, toxins, virulence
- Pathogenic clostridia typically produce toxins as virulence factors which cause severe diseases in both humans and animals. Whereas many clostridia like e.g., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum or Clostridium tetani were shown to contain toxin-encoding plasmids, only toxin genes located on the chromosome were detected in Clostridioides difficile so far. In this study, we determined, annotated, and analyzed the complete genome of the bacteriophage phiSemix9P1 using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT). To our knowledge, this represents the first C. difficile-associated bacteriophage genome that carries a complete functional binary toxin locus in its genome.