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Foliar nitrogen application in Cabernet Sauvignon vines: Effects on wine flavonoid and amino acid content

Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón, Garde-Cerdán, Teresa, Portu, Javier, Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko, Martínez-Gil, Ana M.
Food research international 2017 v.96 pp. 46-53
algae, amino acid composition, arginine, fermentation, fertilizers, flavonols, nitrogen, phenolic compounds, sensory properties, sulfur, thiols, urea, vines, volatile compounds, wine quality, wines, yeasts
Wine quality greatly depends on its chemical composition. Among the most important wine chemical compounds, flavonoids are the major contributors to wine organoleptic properties while amino acids have a huge impact on fermentation development and wine volatile profile. Likewise, nitrogen applications are known to have an impact on wine composition. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effects of foliar nitrogen applications on wine flavonoid and amino acid composition. The experiment involved five foliar nitrogen applications at veraison time: urea (Ur), urea plus sulphur (Ur+S), arginine (Arg), and two commercial fertilizers Nutrimyr Thiols (NT) and Basfoliar Algae (BA). The results showed that nitrogen foliar treatments decreased wine flavonoid content although the effect varied according to each treatment. This could be related to a low vine nitrogen requirement, since must yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) was above acceptable threshold values for all samples. With regard to wine amino acid content, all treatments except for Ur increased its values after the applications. Finally, foliar nitrogen treatments greatly influenced wine composition. Among them, urea seemed to exert the most negative effect on both phenolics and amino acids. In addition, an inverse relationship between wine amino acid content and flavonol concentration was exhibited.