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Detection of metal induced cytopathological alterations and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of green mussel Perna viridis from Ennore Estuary, Chennai, India

Vasanthi, Lourduraj A., Revathi, Peranandam, Babu Rajendran, Ramaswamy, Munuswamy, Natesan
Marine pollution bulletin 2017 v.117 no.1-2 pp. 41-49
DNA damage, Perna viridis, biomarkers, coastal water, droplets, ecotoxicology, estuaries, gills, heavy metals, hepatopancreas, microvilli, mitochondria, mussels, pollution, principal component analysis, India
This study report the impact of heavy metals on cytopathology and DNA damage in the gills and hepatopancreas of Perna viridis collected from Ennore estuary and the Kovalam coastal waters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed significant differences among all variables at the scale of plots. The ultrastructural alterations such as lack of microvilli, distorted mitochondria, electron dense particles and the presence of large mucous droplets were common in the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of mussels from Ennore estuary. However, the gill and hepatopancreatic cells of P. viridis from Kovalam revealed normal compartmentalization of cells. The percentage of tail DNA in the mussels from Ennore estuary was recorded as 12.44 and 10.14% in the gills and hepatopancreas respectively. Overall, it has been demonstrated that the Comet and cytopathological assays are useful biomarkers to assess the level of pollution and it provide reliable information on ecotoxicology and genotoxicology of coastal waters.