U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens Spore Germination and Outgrowth by Lemon Juice and Vinegar Product in Reduced NaCl Roast Beef

Lin Li, Carol Valenzuela-Martinez, Mauricio Redondo, Vijay K. Juneja, Dennis E. Burson, Harshavardhan Thippareddi
Journal of food science 2012 v.77 no.11 pp. 598-603
Clostridium perfringens, beef, cooling, heat treatment, juice concentrates, lemon juice, salt concentration, sodium, sodium chloride, spore germination, spores, vinegars
Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in reduced sodium roast beef by a blend of buffered lemon juice concentrate and vinegar (MoStatin LV) during abusive exponential cooling was evaluated. Roast beef containing salt (NaCl; 1, 1.5, or 2%, wt/wt), blend of sodium pyro- and poly-phosphates (0.3%), and MoStatin LV (0, 2, or 2.5%) was inoculated with a three-strain C. perfringens spore cocktail to achieve final spore population of 2.5 to 3.0 log CFU/g. The inoculated products were heat treated and chilled exponentially from 54.4 to 4.4C within 6.5, 9, 12, 15, 18 or 21 h. Cooling of roast beef (2.0% NaCl) within 6.5 and 9 h resulted in less than 1.0 log CFU/g increase in C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth, whereas reducing the salt concentration to 1.5 and 1.0% resulted in more than 1.0 log CFU/g increase for cooling times longer than 9 h (1.1 and 2.2 log CFU/g, respectively). Incorporation of MoStatin LV into the roast beef formulation minimized the C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth to less than 1.0 log CFU/g, regardless of the salt concentration and the cooling time.