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Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of two Anthocleista species and in vivo rat model anti-diabetic activities of Anthocleista djalonensis extracts and fractions

Olubomehin, O.O., Abo, K.A., Ajaiyeoba, E.O.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2013 v.146 no.3 pp. 811-814
Anthocleista, acetates, adverse effects, albino, alpha-amylase, animal models, bark, biodiversity, blood glucose, diabetes, drugs, fractionation, hernia, hexane, hypertension, intraperitoneal injection, leaves, malaria, methanol, plant extracts, rats, roots, stomach, sulfonylureas, Nigeria
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Anthocleista djalonensis (A. Chev) and Anthocleista vogelii Planch are plants being used in West Africa traditionally to treat various diseases such as malaria, hernia, hypertension, stomach aches, hemorrhoids, syphilis, and diabetes. Diabetes causes about 5% of all deaths globally each year. Chemotherapeutic agents such as biguanides, sulfonylureas, and thiozolidinediones are available for the treatment of diabetes, however, they have undesirable side effects. The need for newer, more effective and less toxic drugs is imperative and the biodiversity of Nigeria has a high potential for drug discovery based on plants used in the ethnomedicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the leaves, stem bark and roots of these plants for their probable alpha-amylase inhibitory activities and establish their anti-diabetic activities. The overall goal is do bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of active anti-diabetic compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Powdered samples (leaves, stem bark and roots) macerated with 80% aqueous methanol were evaluated in vitro using alpha-amylase inhibitory assay while in vivo investigations were carried out on hyperglycemic rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (80mg/kg). Plant extracts (1g/kg) were given orally for 7 days, while blood glucose levels were monitored using a one touch glucometer. The crude methanol extracts found to be most active were further partitioned into hexane and ethyl acetate fractions which were also tested in vivo on the diabetic animals. RESULTS: The leaves and stem bark crude methanol extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis gave comparable α-amylase inhibition of 73.66% and 72.90%, respectively which were quite higher than the 38.93% and 22.90% of the same plant parts given by Anthocleista vogelii. The crude stem bark extract of Anthocleista djalonensis exhibited significant peak blood glucose reduction on day 6 (72.59%, p<0.05) which was higher than the leaves or roots which gave 45.73% and 47.46% (p<0.05), respectively The stem bark ethyl acetate fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis gave reduction in blood glucose level of 60.86% (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: From our results, the leaves, stem bark and whole root of both plants exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activities with Anthocleista djalonensis also showing good anti-diabetic activities in vivo indicating that they contain active principles for the management of diabetes. There is justification for the use of the plants traditionally to manage diabetes.