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Plant products and secondary metabolites with acaricide activity against ticks

Rosado-Aguilar, J.A., Arjona-Cambranes, K., Torres-Acosta, J.F.J., Rodríguez-Vivas, R.I., Bolio-González, M.E., Ortega-Pacheco, A., Alzina-López, A., Gutiérrez-Ruiz, E.J., Gutiérrez-Blanco, E., Aguilar-Caballero, A.J.
Veterinary parasitology 2017 v.238 pp. 66-76
Amblyomma, Argas, Asteraceae, Dermacentor, Fabaceae, Hyalomma, Lamiaceae, Piperaceae, Poaceae, Rhipicephalus, Verbenaceae, acaricidal properties, acaricides, adults, bioassays, carvacrol, cineole, essential oils, larvae, mortality, nicotine, plant extracts, reproductive performance, secondary metabolites, thymol, ticks
The present review documents the results of studies evaluating the acaricidal activity of different plant products and secondary metabolites against ticks that are resistant and susceptible to conventional acaricides. Studies published from 1998 to 2016 were included. The acaricidal activity of plant extracts, essential oils and secondary compounds from plants have been evaluated using bioassays with ticks in the larval and adult stages. There is variable effectiveness according to the species of plant and the concentrations used, with observed mortalities ranging from 5 to 100% against the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus), Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, and Argas genera. A number of plants have been reported to cause high mortalities and/or affect the reproductive capacity of ticks in the adult phase. In the majority of these trials, the main species of plants evaluated correspond to the families Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Verbenaceae, and Poaceae. Different secondary metabolites such as thymol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol and n-hexanal, have been found to be primarily responsible for the acaricidal activity of different essential oils against different species of ticks, while nicotine, dibenzyldisulfide and dibenzyltrisulfide have been evaluated for plant extracts. Only thymol, carvacrol and 1,8-cineol have been evaluated for acaricidal activity under in vivo conditions. The information in the present review allows the conclusion that the secondary metabolites contained in plant products could be used as an alternative for the control of ticks that are susceptible or resistant to commercial acaricides.