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Dough and bread made from high- and low-protein flours by vacuum mixing: Part 1: Gluten network formation

Gao, Jing, Koh, Audrey Hui Si, Tay, Shia Lyn, Zhou, Weibiao
Journal of cereal science 2017 v.74 pp. 288-295
atmospheric pressure, disulfide bonds, dough, extensibility, flour, gluten, headspace analysis, mixing
The effects of reduced headspace pressure on the development of gluten network in doughs made from both high-protein flour (HPF) and low-protein flour (LPF) were investigated. The effect of vacuum mixing was found to be dependent on both flour-type and mixing-time. A significant increase in dough extensibility was observed when the HPF dough was mixed under moderate vacuum of −0.04 MPa for 3 min as compared to the one mixed under atmospheric pressure for the same duration. This was attributed to the formation of a more extensive gluten network associated with an increased disulphide bond density and a significantly higher β-sheet to β-turn ratio. On the other hand, over-mixing was observed in the LPF dough that was mixed for 5 min under atmospheric pressure. Applying moderate vacuum of −0.04 MPa allowed the LPF dough to withstand longer mixing time, as indicated by its increased disulphide bond density and biaxial extensibility compared to the control dough mixed under atmospheric pressure. Results of this study suggest the potential of applying vacuum to reduce the mixing time required for high protein flour and to prevent the over-mixing of low protein flour.