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Quadruple-first line drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Vietnam: What can we learn from genes?

Nguyen, Huy Quang, Nguyen, Nhung Viet, Contamin, Lucie, Tran, Thanh Hoa Thi, Vu, Thuong Thi, Nguyen, Hung Van, Nguyen, Ngoc Lan Thi, Nguyen, Son Thai, Dang, Anh Duc, Bañuls, Anne-Laure, Nguyen, Van Anh Thi
Infection, genetics, and evolution 2017 v.50 pp. 55-61
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, drugs, fluoroquinolones, genes, genetic variation, isoniazid, multiple drug resistance, mutation, rifampicin, streptomycin, tuberculosis, Vietnam
In Vietnam, a country with high tuberculosis (137/100.000 population) and multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB burdens (7.8/100.000 population), little is known about the molecular signatures of drug resistance in general and more particularly of second line drug (SLD) resistance. This study is specifically focused on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to four first-line drugs (FLDs) that make TB much more difficult to treat. The aim is to determine the proportion of SLD resistance in these quadruple drug resistant isolates and the genetic determinants linked to drug resistance to better understand the genetic processes leading to quadruple and extremely drug resistance (XDR). 91 quadruple (rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin) FLD resistant and 55 susceptible isolates were included. Spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU-VNTR techniques were performed and 9 genes and promoters linked to FLD and SLD resistance were sequenced. SLD susceptibility testing was carried out on a subsample of isolates. High proportion of quadruple-FLD resistant isolates was resistant to fluoroquinolones (27%) and second-line injectable drugs (30.2%) by drug susceptibility testing. The sequencing revealed high mutation diversity with prevailing mutations at positions katG315, inhA-15, rpoB531, embB306, rrs1401, rpsL43 and gyrA94. The sensitivity and specificity were high for most drug resistances (>86%), but the sensitivity was lower for injectable drug resistances (<69%). The mutation patterns revealed 23.1% of pre-XDR and 7.7% of XDR isolates, mostly belonging to Beijing family. The genotypic diversity and the variety of mutations reflect the existence of various evolutionary paths leading to FLD and SLD resistance. Nevertheless, particular mutation patterns linked to high-level resistance and low fitness costs seem to be favored.